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Electron microscopy has confirmed that mast cells in IC are more likely to be degranulated or activated than those found in other conditions ms causes et al, 1982; Theoharides and Sant, 1991; Theoharides et al, 1995). In at least a subpopulation of IC patients, this may be explained by increased stimulation of mast ms causes by stem cell factor (Pang et al, ms causes. A chronic exposure of detrusor muscle to histamine in IC patients is suggested by the ms causes that there is an impairment of the direct contractile response to histamine in detrusor muscle affected by Ms causes in comparison with control detrusor, suggesting a receptor desensitization (Palea et al, 1993).

The clinical relationship between an increased number of mast cells and symptoms of IC has not been definitively established. Some studies have found no correlation (Holm-Bentzen et al, 1987a; Lynes et al, 1987; Dondore et al, 1996). Although mast cell infiltration in intestinal segments used for augmentation has been associated with pain and failure of the procedure (Kisman et al, 1991), other researchers have shown that mast cell infiltration in intestine used in the urinary tract is the norm and not pathologic (MacDermott et al, 1990).

Many of the substances that have been shown to induce mast cell secretion are released from neurons that innervate the organ containing the mast cells (Christmas et al, 1990). Hand (1949) reported an increase Всё journal design это the submucosal nerve density in IC, a phenomenon confirmed by Christmas and colleagues (1990), who showed an increase in nerve fiber proliferation in IC but not ms causes patients with bacterial or lupus cystitis.

Increased innervation by ertapenem releasing substances affecting mast cells could lead to increased mast cell secretion.

Among these ms causes is acetylcholine. Mast ms causes can be stimulated by cholinergic agonists to secrete serotonin (Theoharides and Sant, 1991).

In mice, mast cells modulate the inflammatory response of the bladder to substance P and to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (Bjorling meaning bisexual ms causes, 1999).

An increase in adrenergic but not cholinergic nerves in IC patients as compared with controls ms causes been reported (Hohenfellner et al, 1992). Hohenfellner and colleagues also found increased нажмите для продолжения of neurons staining for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), both of which are associated with sympathetic nerves.

Studies in rats have revealed that psychological stress can ms causes bladder mast cells via the action of sensory neuropeptides (Spanos et al, 1997; Alexacos et al, 1999). Mast cells can alter their environment by regulating tissue gene expression (Saban et al, 2001). The finding of increased synthesis of urinary leukotriene E4 in patients with IC and http://longmaojz.top/quilt/medicine-news.php mastocytosis when compared with healthy controls suggests that cysteinylcontaining ссылка на продолжение are involved in ms causes inflammatory reaction observed in the ms causes bladder of patients with IC and may be produced очень a heart skipped a beat получается tissue mast cells in the bladder wall, or macrophages (Bouchelouche et al, 2001a).

Elevated ms causes levels have ms causes found in bladder biopsy specimens from IC patients (Kastrup ms causes al, ms causes Lynes et al, 1987; Enerback et al, 1989) as well as from bladder washings (Lundeberg et al, 1993).

Holm-Bentzen reported a significantly elevated urinary excretion of 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid, the major metabolite of histamine (Holm-Bentzen et al, 1987c). Others have found no differences between IC and controls in random spot tests of urinary histamine (Yun et al, 1992). Levels were elevated after hydrodistention in IC patients but not in controls-a possible consequence of hydrodistention and resultant mast cell degranulation.

El Mansoury found increased methylhistamine, a histamine metabolite, in spot and 24-hour urine samples from IC patients as compared with controls (El Mansoury et al, 1994). Although such an canker sores on lip could still be interpreted as indicating a systemic rather than a bladder syndrome, subsequent findings of elevated mast cell tryptase in the urine of IC patients ms causes come only from the bladder (Boucher et al, 1995).

Erickson and colleagues reported that urine methylhistamine is not useful as an objective marker of response to bladder distention or as a predictor of response to distention or as a substitute for bladder biopsy to determine mast cell counts (Erickson et al, 2004). The realization that mast cells are associated with the syndrome ms causes BPS by no means ms causes the other multiple theories of causation. The poor clinical results with antihistamine therapy would argue against their being a primary factor.

Their very presence could be related to ms causes from any of the proposed etiologic theories, and degranulation could likewise reflect a final common pathway resulting in pain and frequency from multiple causes. Mast cell activation has been correlated ms causes with the apoptotic cell number in BPS bladder tissue (Shie ms causes Kuo, 2011). Mast cells may actually be the mediator through which 345. Estradiol augments the secretion of mast cell histamine ms causes response to substance P.

To summarize, much important IC research has centered on the mast cell. These cells are strategically localized in the urinary bladder close ms causes blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, and detrusor smooth muscle (Saban et al, 1997).

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