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Certain pathologies are marked by a breakdown of this long-range organization property, producing an uncorrelated randomness similar to "white noise. Practical applications of nonlinear dynamics are likely within the next few http://longmaojz.top/effect-bystander/radicals-free.php. Probably the first journal of cereal science implementations will be journal of cereal science physiological monitoring.

A number of indices derived from chaos theory have shown promise in forecasting subjects at high risk of electrophysiologic or hemodynamic instability, including automated detection journal of cereal science the onset and end of pathologic low frequency (1, 2 and 4) (43, 52-59); detection of subtle ST-T alternans (17, 51); detection of a breakdown in fractal journal of cereal science with disease and journal of cereal science (43); and quantification of differences or changes in the nonlinear complexity or dimension of a physiological time series (59, 60).

In addition journal of cereal science these diagnostic journal of cereal science, perhaps the most exciting prospects are related to novel therapeutic interventions. An important recent finding is that certain mathematical or physical systems with complex dynamics can be controlled by properly timed external stimuli: chaotic dynamics can be made more regular (chaos control) and periodic ones can be made chaotic (chaos anti-control) (61-63).

One proposal, based on the earlier notion that certain arrhythmias, particularly ventricular fibrillation, represent cardiac chaos, is to develop chaos control algorithms to electrically pace the heart beat back to sinus rhythm (63). A more recent proposal is to use chaos anti-control protocols to treat or to prevent cardiac arrhythmias or epilepsy based on the hypothesis that restoration of a kind chaotic-like variability may actually be advantageous (62). Chaos theory also holds promise for illuminating a number of journal of cereal science problems in contemporary physiology and molecular biology.

Nonlinear wave mechanisms may underlie certain types of reentrant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (6, 7). Appreciation for the rich nonlinearity of physiological systems may have relevance journal of cereal science modeling enormously complicated signal-transduction cascades involved, for example, in neuroautonomic dynamics in which interactions and "cross-talk" occur over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, as well as for understanding complex pharmacologic effects.

Fractal analysis of long DNA sequences has recently revealed that non-coding, but not coding sequences possess long-range correlations among nucleotides (64). Findings from nonlinear dynamics have also challenged conventional mechanisms of physiological control based on classical homeostasis, which presumes that journal of cereal science systems seek to attain a constant steady state. In contrast, nonlinear systems with fractal dynamics, such as the neuroautonomic mechanisms regulating heart rate variability, behave as if they were driven far from equilibrium under basal conditions.

Finally, a fundamental methodologic principle underlying these new applications and interpretations is the importance of analyzing continuously sampled variations in physiological output, such as heart rate, and not simply relying on averaged values or measures of variance. Dynamical analysis demonstrates journal of cereal science there is often hidden information in physiological time series and that certain fluctuations previously considered "noise" actually represent important signals (67-70).

This chapter is adapted from: Goldberger AL. Lancet 1996;347:1312-1314; and Goldberger AL. Fractal variability versus pathologic journal of cereal science complexity loss and stereotypy in disease.

Perspect Biol Med 1997;40:543-561. This work is supported in part by grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Glass L, Mackey MC. From Clocks to Chaos: the Rhythms of Life. Princeton: University Press, 1988. Goldberger AL, Rigney DR, West BJ. Chaos and fractals in human physiology.

Bassingthwaighte JB, Liebovitch LS, West BJ. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Simple mathematical models with very по этому адресу dynamical behavior.

When Time Breaks Down: The Three-Dimensional Dynamics journal of cereal science Electrochemical Waves and Cardiac Arrhythmias. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987. Davidenko JM, Pertsov AV, Salomonosz R, Baxter W, Jalife J. Stationary and drifting waves of excitation in isolated cardiac muscle. Babloyantz A, Destexhe A.

Low dimensional chaos in an instance of epilepsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986;83:3513-7. Goldberger AL, Rigney DR. Nonlinear dynamics at the bedside. In: Glass L, Hunter P, McCulloch A.

New York: Springer, 1991; 583-605. Chay TR, Lee YS. Ann NY Acad Sci 1990;591:328-50. Longtin A, Bulsara A, Pierson D, Moss F. Bistability and the dynamics of periodically forced sensory neurons.

Delmar M, Ibarra J, Johnson lopez Так J, Lorente P, Jalife J. Dynamics of the background outward current of single guinea pig ventricular myocytes: ionic mechanisms of hysteresis in cardiac cells. Courtemanche M, Glass Journal of cereal science. Rosengarten MD, Goldberger AL.

Beyond pure parasystole: promises and problems in modelling complex arrhythmias. Am J Physiol 1989; 257 (Heart Circ Physiol 26):H693-706. Wiesenfeld K, Moss F. Stochastic resonance and the benefits of noise: from ice ages to crayfish and SQUIDS. Glass продолжить чтение Guevara MR, Shrier A.

Universal bifurcations and the classification of cardiac arrhythmias. Ranson NY Acad Sci 1987;504:168-78.

Rigney DR, Goldberger AL. Am J Physiol 1989;257(Heart Circ Physiol 20):H:1292-1305.

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01.08.2020 in 03:15 Мальвина:
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