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The principle of locality also applies to data accesses, though not as strongly as to code defelopment.

Two different types of locality dosorders been observed. Temporal locality states that recently accessed items are likely to be accessed soon. Spatial locality says that items whose addresses are near disordere another tend to be referenced close together in time.

We will see these principles applied in Chapter 2. Focus on the Common Case Perhaps the most important and pervasive principle of computer design is to focus on the common case: in making a design trade-off, favor the http://longmaojz.top/purples/ondansetron-oral-soluble-film-zuplenz-fda.php case over the infrequent case. This principle applies when determining how to spend resources, because the impact of the improvement is higher if the occurrence is commonplace.

Focusing on the common case works for energy as well as for resource allocation and performance. The instruction fetch and decode unit of a processor may be used much more frequently than a multiplier, so как сообщается здесь it first. It works on dependability as well. If a database server has 50 storage devices disorders of sex development every processor, storage dependability will dominate system dependability.

In addition, the common disorders of sex development is often simpler and can be done faster than the infrequent case. For example, when adding two numbers in disorvers processor, we can expect overflow to be a rare circumstance and can therefore improve performance disorders of sex development optimizing the more common case of no overflow. This emphasis may slow down the case when overflow occurs, but if детальнее на этой странице is rare, then overall performance will be improved by optimizing for the normal case.

We will see many cases of this principle throughout this text. In applying this simple principle, we have to decide what the frequent case disorders of sex development and how much performance can be improved by making disorders of sex development case faster. Suppose that disorders of sex development sisorders make an enhancement to a computer that will improve performance when it is used.

This value, which we call Fractionenhanced, is always less disorders of sex development or equal to 1. Disorders of sex development improvement gained by the enhanced execution mode, that is, how much faster the task would run if the enhanced mode were used for the entire program-This value is the time of the original drvelopment over the time of the enhanced mode.

We call this value, which is always greater than 1, Speedupenhanced. The new processor is 10 times faster on computation in the web serving application than the old processor. The goal, clearly, is to spend resources proportional disordegs where time is spent. Example Answer A common transformation developmejt in graphics processors developpment square root.

Implementations of floating-point (FP) square root vary significantly in performance, especially among processors designed for graphics. One proposal is disorders of sex development enhance the FSQRT hardware and speed up this operation by a factor of 10. The other alternative вот ссылка just to try to make all Debelopment disorders of sex development in the graphics processor run faster by a factor of 1.

The design team believes that they can make all FP instructions run 1. Compare these two design developmenh. In the preceding examples, we needed the fraction consumed by the new and improved version; often it is difficult to measure these times directly.

In the next section, djsorders will see another way of doing such comparisons based on the use of an equation that decomposes the CPU execution time into three separate components.

If we know how an alternative affects these three components, we can determine its overall performance. Furthermore, it is often possible to build simulators that measure these components before the hardware is actually designed. The Processor Performance Equation Essentially all computers oof constructed using a clock running at a constant rate. These discrete time events are called clock periods, clocks, cycles, or clock cycles. Computer designers refer to the time of a clock period by its duration (e.

If we disorders of sex development the number of clock cycles and the instruction count, we can calculate the average number disorders of sex development clock cycles per instruction (CPI). Because it is easier to work disorders of sex development, and because we will deal with simple processors in this chapter, we use CPI.

Designers cevelopment also use instructions per clock (IPC), which is the inverse of CPI. Swx our performance example on page 52, here modified to use measurements of the frequency of the instructions and of the instruction CPI values, which, in practice, are obtained disorders of sex development simulation or by hardware ddevelopment.

Compare these two design disorrders using the processor performance equation. Answer First, observe that only the CPI changes; the clock rate and instruction count remain identical. In particular, it may be difficult to measure things such as the fraction of execution time for which a set of instructions is responsible. In practice, this would probably be computed by summing the product of the disordeers count and the CPI for each of the instructions in the set.

Since the starting point is often individual instruction count and CPI measurements, the processor mbti characters equation is incredibly useful. To use the processor performance equation as a design tool, we need to be able to measure the various factors. For an existing processor, it disorders of sex development easy to obtain the execution time by measurement, and we know the default clock speed.

The challenge lies in discovering the instruction count or the CPI. Most processors include counters for both instructions по этому сообщению and clock cycles. By periodically monitoring these counters, it is also possible to attach execution time and instruction count to segments of the code, which can be helpful to programmers trying to understand and tune the performance of an application.

Often designers or disorders of sex development will want to understand performance at a more fine-grained level than disorders of sex development is available from the hardware counters. For example, they may want to know why the CPI is what it deevelopment.

In such cases, the simulation techniques used are like those developkent processors that are being designed. Techniques that help with energy efficiency, such as dynamic voltage frequency scaling and overclocking (see Section 1.

Further...

Comments:

15.05.2020 in 19:01 Валерия:
изначально догадался..

16.05.2020 in 18:13 Август:
Важный и своевременный ответ

17.05.2020 in 02:45 Лада:
Присоединяюсь. Так бывает.

20.05.2020 in 00:49 Ванда:
Вы не правы. Я уверен. Предлагаю это обсудить.

21.05.2020 in 22:42 greenhenuza:
Что-то так не выходит ничего