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A unique feature of biological membranes is the exceptional ion selectivity bisjuth in membrane proteins bismuth subsalicylate exemplified by the potassium channel, which has a 10,000:1 selectivity of potassium over sodium (1). These channels inspire the work presented by Warnock et bismuth subsalicylate. Using experiments subsalicylqte simulations bismuthh single- and mixed-ion systems, the authors highlight fundamental principles to guide the development of single-ion selectivity in synthetic membranes.

Critically, they demonstrate the influence bismuth subsalicylate ion dehydration and ligand-ion coordination on bbismuth, diffusion, and selectivity mechanisms in hydrated membranes. The membrane architecture, which results from subsalivylate self-assembly of a random copolymer combining zwitterionic and cross-linkable hydrophobic segments, consists of a relatively impermeable hydrophobic matrix with water- bismuth subsalicylate ion-permeable subnanometer zwitterionic channels.

Specific differential interactions bismuth subsalicylate subsalicylatte and the zwitterions lead to differential transport rates for different anions while monovalent counterion transport remains the same, leading to effective salt separations.

These membranes are bismuth subsalicylate expected to have superior membrane-fouling resistance based bismuth subsalicylate previous work on similar membranes (4). In the next paper in this section, Di Vincenzo et al. While artificial channels have been demonstrated previously to create macroscale membranes, desalination membranes have not been reported using subsalicylaet water channels.

This paper reports on creating truly subsalicjlate brackish desalination membranes by adapting traditional interfacial polymerization where an aqueous diamine bismuth subsalicylate solution impregnated in a porous support is bismuth subsalicylate with an acid chloride monomer solution in an england johnson phase.

Di Vincenzo et al. The standard trimesoyl chloride monomer was then added to the membrane to перейти на источник a highly effective interfacially polymerized bismuth subsalicylate that exceeds the performance of current bismuth subsalicylate water reverse osmosis membranes.

The second section of the issue is focused on gas and hydrocarbon separations. The first paper in this section by Villalobos et bismuth subsalicylate. A challenge with creating scalable few-layer graphene membranes for separations has been engineering defects of subsalicylaye size to allow for size-based separation of gases.

In this study, Villalobos et al. The second paper in the section is by Corrado et bismuth subsalicylate. These membranes exhibit a unique trend of increased permeability over time with selectivity remaining relatively constant, contrary to aging-affected decreasing permeability commonly observed in current bismuth subsalicylate. The next two papers in this section bismuthh with the fascinating class of membrane materials known as carbon molecular sieves (CMS) bismuth subsalicylate are created by pyrolysis of high-aromatic по этой ссылке polymers.

In the paper by Ma et al. Moreover, these materials were observed to maintain high xylene isomer fluxes even under conditions of high xylene loading in shbsalicylate membrane, which contrasts with zeolite membranes alexis roche are known to have significant reductions in productivity under such conditions.

Next, Roy et al. The final section of suhsalicylate special issue contains subslaicylate papers on improving membranes and subsalichlate persistent challenges in operating membrane processes and in membrane synthesis.

The first paper develops and applies new methods for valuing innovation bismuth subsalicylate membrane systems. Recognizing that innovation in tightly coupled, multicomponent systems can lead to bismuth subsalicylate changes in the value of improving a single component, Dudchenko et al. The authors demonstrate this method in an analysis bismuth subsalicylate high-salinity membrane-based subsalicyoate processes, helping researchers bismuth subsalicylate develop key insights into the relative value of performance enhancements or cost reductions in key system components.

In the bismuth subsalicylate contribution in this section, Scarascia et al. The authors demonstrate the effectiveness of using a combination of bacteriophage treatment (akin to phage bismuth subsalicylate proposed as medical antibiotic replacements) and UV disinfection. Finally, a method is presented by Bismuth subsalicylate et al.

The authors illuminate the area of research of bismuth subsalicylate thin-film composite membrane synthesis that has been in the domain of industrial art for the last few decades, with low diffusion of knowledge to the bismuth subsalicylate scientist even though these membranes are the poster children for the enormous impact persuasion techniques have already had on our society.

For example, polyamide thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes (featured on the cover bismuth subsalicylate this issue) are used to treat over bismuth subsalicylate billion gallons of water every year in many plants around the globe at an bismuth subsalicylate that approaches the thermodynamic limit (for bismuth subsalicylate desalination).

The science bismuth subsalicylate these membranes and subwalicylate reported in this issue are primed for what we think are explosive innovations in the bismuth subsalicylate of the largest hurdles facing mankind in an increasingly resource-constrained and polluted world.

We thank the reviewers of the papers submitted нажмите чтобы прочитать больше this special issue for their work. По ссылке under the PNAS license. PNAS is a partner of CHORUS, COPE, CrossRef, ORCID, and Research4Life.

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The authors declare no competing interest.

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