Benign prostatic hyperplasia

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The ratio of connective tissue to smooth muscle was significantly increased in poorly compliant versus normal bladders. The ratio of benign prostatic hyperplasia III to type I collagen was also significantly elevated. In the rat, infravesical obstruction or bladder denervation induces hypertrophy of benign prostatic hyperplasia detrusor smooth muscle and, in turn, a decrease in the collagen concentration (Uvelius and Mattiasson, 1984, 1986).

Aging is associated with a relative decrease in smooth muscle, in both men and women, relative to collagen content (Susset et al, 1978; Lepor et al, 1992). This could perhaps be продолжить to the decreased packing density of submucosal collagen during aging (Levy and Wight, 1990).

Perhaps benign prostatic hyperplasia most comprehensive work on bladder collagen was performed by Macarak and Benign prostatic hyperplasia (1999), who speculated benign prostatic hyperplasia connections must exist between the tension-generating elements Benign prostatic hyperplasia 69 Physiology and Pharmacology основываясь на этих данных the Bladder and Urethra (i.

In bladders that become noncompliant (e. Further studies are required to establish the relationship between compliance changes and the passive mechanical elements of the bladder wall that make up its structural protein matrix. Bladder Wall Elastin and Matrix Elastic fibers are amorphous structures composed of elastin and a microfibrillar component located mainly around the periphery of the amorphous component (Rosenbloom et al, 1995).

The microfibrils contain a number of glycoproteins. Elastin fibers are sparse in the bladder compared with collagen but жмите сюда found in all layers of the bladder wall (Murakumo et al, 1995).

During this 6 weeks, the bladder compliance increases and the bladder becomes overdistended. The nonfibrillar matrix in benign prostatic hyperplasia stroma is largely composed of a gel of proteoglycans and water.

Proteoglycans are glycoproteins with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) covalently attached. Smooth Muscle Histologic examination of the bladder benign prostatic hyperplasia reveals that myofibrils are arranged into fascicles (bundles) in random directions (Donker et al, 1982). This architecture differs from the discrete circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers in benign prostatic hyperplasia ureter or gastrointestinal tract.

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent nerve BK channels 1635 Bladder smooth muscles have no cross striations visible under the microscope. Each detrusor smooth muscle cell contains a single nucleus. The cell membranes of smooth muscle contain caveolae-flask-shaped http://longmaojz.top/video-pussy/coronary-artery-bypass.php of the membrane- and elements of the intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are often associated with caveolae.

The motor innervation of the bladder smooth muscle is from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers, although intramural ganglia can exist within the bladder wall. Figure 69-6 shows the varicosities (rounded nodes) that wrap around the smooth muscle fiber. Varicosities can release a variety of neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACh) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

It is unlikely that every smooth muscle cell receives direct synaptic contact; the presence of gap junctions allows excitation to propagate throughout the smooth muscle syncytium. Postjunctional receptors, such as muscarinic and purinergic receptors, are present on the smooth muscle cell. Some investigators have found that the detrusor smooth muscle has afferent innervation that could mediate afferent signals related to smooth muscle activity (Gillespie et al, 2006).

OVERVIEW OF URETHRA Male Urethra The urethra benign prostatic hyperplasia at the bladder neck and extends to the external meatus and is composed of striated and smooth muscle. In the male, four segments are readily identified. The prostatic urethra then extends throughout the length of the gland, terminating at the prostatic apex. The membranous urethra extends from the prostatic apex through the pelvic floor musculature (including the EUS) until it becomes the bulbous and penile urethra at the base of the penis (Fig.

Motor nerve innervation of a detrusor muscle fascicle. See text for description. Female Urethra Figure 69-7. Anatomy of male urethra seen on retrograde urethrogram with patient in lateral oblique position. The benign prostatic hyperplasia area is the external urethral sphincter, and the purple area is the prostate.

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